Protect Apache using Mod_security and Mod_evasive on RHEL/CentOS & Fedora

What is Mod_Security?
Mod_Security is an open source web application firewall (WAF) and intrusion detection and prevention system for web applications. It is used to protect and monitor real time HTTP traffic and web applications from brute fore attacks.

What is Mod_Evasive?
Mod_Evasive is an open source evasive maneuvers system for Apache server to provide evasive action in the event of an HTTP brute force, Dos or DDos attack. It was designed to use as a network traffic detection and network management tool and can be easily configured and integrated into firewalls, ipchains, routers etc. Presently, it sends abuses reports via email and syslog facilites.

How to Install Mod_Security on RHEL/CentOS & Fedora
You must have LAMP setup installed and configured in your system before installing mod_security.

Step 1: Installing Dependencies for mod_security
Firstly, we required to install some dependency packages for mod_security. Run the following commands on your selected OS.
## For RHEL/CentOS 6.2/6.1/6/5.8 ##
# yum install gcc make
# yum install libxml2 libxml2-devel httpd-devel pcre-devel curl-devel

## For Fedora 17,16,15,14,13,12 ##
# yum install gcc make
# yum install libxml2 libxml2-devel httpd-devel pcre-devel curl-devel

Step 2: Installing Mod_Security
As I said above that we use source code to install mod_security. Run the following commands as root.
## For RHEL/CentOS 6.2/6.1/6/5.8 ##
# cd /usr/src
# wget http://www.modsecurity.org/download/modsecurity-apache_2.6.6.tar.gz
# tar xzf modsecurity-apache_2.6.6.tar.gz
# cd modsecurity-apache_2.6.6
# ./configure
# make install
# cp modsecurity.conf-recommended /etc/httpd/conf.d/modsecurity.conf

## For Fedora 17,16,15,14,13,12 ##
# cd /usr/src
# wget http://www.modsecurity.org/download/modsecurity-apache_2.6.6.tar.gz
# tar xzf modsecurity-apache_2.6.6.tar.gz
# cd modsecurity-apache_2.6.6
# ./configure
# make install
# cp modsecurity.conf-recommended /etc/httpd/conf.d/modsecurity.conf

Step 3: Downloading OWASP Mod_Security Core Rule Set
Mod_Security requires OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) core rules for base configuration, these rules are used to protect from unknown vulnerabilities which often found on web applications. So, here we are going to download and install rule set for mod_security. Run the following commands.
## For RHEL/CentOS 6.2/6.1/6/5.8 ##
# cd /etc/httpd/
# wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/mod-security/modsecurity-crs/0-CURRENT/modsecurity-crs_2.2.5.tar.gz
# tar xzf modsecurity-crs_2.2.5.tar.gz
# mv modsecurity-crs_2.2.5 modsecurity-crs
# cd modsecurity-crs
# cp modsecurity_crs_10_setup.conf.example modsecurity_crs_10_config.conf

## For Fedora 17,16,15,14,13,12 ##
# cd /etc/httpd/
# wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/mod-security/modsecurity-crs/0-CURRENT/modsecurity-crs_2.2.5.tar.gz
# tar xzf modsecurity-crs_2.2.5.tar.gz
# mv modsecurity-crs_2.2.5 modsecurity-crs
# cd modsecurity-crs
# cp modsecurity_crs_10_setup.conf.example modsecurity_crs_10_config.conf

Step 4: Configuring Mod_Security
Now, you need to modify your Apache configuration file to load the mod_security module.
# vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
Search for the line LoadModule in your httpd.conf and add this below line at the bottom.
LoadModule security2_module modules/mod_security2.so
Now set the basic rule set in your httpd.conf file. Add the following lines of code at the end of the file.
<IfModule security2_module>
    Include modsecurity-crs/modsecurity_crs_10_config.conf
    Include modsecurity-crs/base_rules/*.conf
</IfModule>
Next, restart the Apache service to enable mod_security module and their rules.
# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
For more information on this topic visit the following links for your reference.

How to Install Mod_Evasive in RHEL/CentOS & Fedora
As we already installed required dependency packages above, so let’s install the mod_evasive module.

Step 1: Installing Mod_Evasive
Just run the following commands to install mod_evasive.
## For RHEL/CentOS 6.2/6.1/6/5.8 ##
# cd /usr/src 
# wget http://www.zdziarski.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz
# tar xzf mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz
# cd mod_evasive
# apxs -cia mod_evasive20.c

## For Fedora 17,16,15,14,13,12 ##
# cd /usr/src 
# wget http://www.zdziarski.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz
# tar xzf mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz
# cd mod_evasive
# apxs -cia mod_evasive20.c

Step 2: Configuring Mod_Evasive
By default installation adds the following line of mod_evasive configuration to your Apache configuration file. Please verify that it should be there like similar to below. If you can’t see this below line, then add this to your httpd.conf file.
LoadModule evasive20_module   /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_evasive20.so
Now add the mod_evasive configuration parameters to your Apache configuration at the end. Replace someone@somewhere.com with your Email Id to get email alerts.
<IfModule mod_evasive20.c>
DOSHashTableSize    3097
DOSPageCount        2
DOSSiteCount        50
DOSPageInterval     1
DOSSiteInterval     1
DOSBlockingPeriod   60
DOSEmailNotify someone@somewhere.com
</IfModule>
Next restart the Apache service to update changes.
# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
For more additional information visit the mod_evasive Home Page.
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